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I'M The Second DREAMER Of NextIsEasy.I Am Also A Student Who Has Even Not Completed His Primary Education (12th Class). At The Moment We Are Writing This Page I’M Only 13 Years Old Guy Who Is In Class 9th But I Am Passionate For Technology So Even I Am Youth. My Hobby Is :- Listening Music , Programming , Making Websites and Apps , And Many More.

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I'mAyush Sonkar

Hardworker and Motivater

I’M The First DREAMER Of NextIsEasy. I Am Only A Student Who Has Even Not Completed His Primary Education (12th Class). At The Moment We Are Writing This Page I’M Only 13 Years Old Guy Who Is In Class 9th But I Am Passionate For Tech So Even I Am Young, I Start Reading The Books Of Engineering And Others Also!

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How to Run a Disk Defragmentation?



The storage of a file in several non-contiguous areas of a disk rather than a single contiguous until is called Disk Fragmentation. When a file is stored on a disk, the Operating System searches for the first available free block on the disk and stores the file there.

If the file you saved is too large according to the Operating System for one block then Operating System searches for the next block which have that much of free space. These blocks may not be in continuous form or may be scattered over the disk.

This fragmentation also slows down your computer system, or the retrieval of data. So, to remove this file fragmentation, a Disk Defragmenter program is used, that rearranges all files and directories into one contiguous area of disk and consolidates the free space in one contiguous block.


HOW TO RUN A DISK DEFRAGMENTATION?


  • Click on Start
  • Go to All Programs.
  • Go to Accessories.
  • Go to System Tools
  • Go to Disk Defragmenter.

  • To open Disk Defragmenter Software in Windows 8, 8.1 and 10 = Simply Search ‘Disk Defragmenter’ in search box.

In Windows 8, 8.1 and 10


  • This process will open the Disk Defragmenter Software.
  • Now select that files which you want to Defragmented.
  • Click on Defragment Disk button.

Disk Defragmentation Software

  • This will initiate the process of disk defragmentation that will take more than an hour to finish.

Thanks for Reading...

What is Motherboard? & How it Works?




Today I am going to talk about the main component of any computer – Motherboard. We all are aware of the ‘Motherboard’ but you don’t know exactly what is Motherboard and how it actually works! If you don’t know then don’t worry about that! We are going to tell you.


WHAT IS MOTHERBOARD?


The Motherboard is the main and the complex part of the electronic device like computer and laptop. You can also say that the motherboard is the central part of computer which connects the computer. Motherboard connects the different parts of computer which helps to work together.

The pic of Motherboard is below...

That's how the Motherboard looks like....


The motherboard is alternatively known as the Mainboard, System Board, Baseboard, Planar board and also Logic Board.

The motherboard is the main Printed Circuit Board, known as PCB, found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable system.

As the name says all – ‘Mother’, this connect the devices like interface cards, sound cards, video cards, network cards, hard drives, TV tuner cards, extra USB or FireWire slots, peripheral devices etc.


FUNCTIONS AND USES


There are many uses and functions of motherboard in your computer system but we are going to tell you some of the most important functions and uses:

  • Processor

The main function of the motherboard is containing the number of sockets of the CPU. You can also say that the motherboard has used for having varied configurations for the processor pins.


See that small Processors....!

  • Chipset

The chipset is basically used in a PC to transfer data from parts to parts. Therefore, chipset is used the microprocessors in motherboard.

  • Memory

Motherboard is also used for memory because the RAM used or install by users is also impact motherboard.

These are the three most important uses…


HOW MOTHERBOARD WORKS?


Actually if you are common people and only need to know little bit about the motherboard working process then – there is no working process of the motherboard….

  • If you are here for the one line answer then here it is…

The motherboard is only provide the platform for the components of the computer to work together and performs the some specific tasks.

  • But if you are here for complete answer, then read more…

A motherboard allows all the parts of your computer system to receive power, communicate and work with one another.

The first motherboards had come with IBM PC. The first motherboard had only the slots and processors.

  • The CPU points to the Memory and to the PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Controller.
  • That PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Controller points to the expansion cards and also hard drives.
  • The CPU points to the PCI controller that point to various other input/output such as the Network and USB connections.

Look at the Figure to understand more.... Effectively....



So, this is all I hope you understand the procedure, if you have any query please free to comment...

Thanks for reading....



Read More:




Internet Access via Cable TV Network.......





Internet Access via Cable TV Network

Internet is a network of networks in which various computers connect each other through out the world. The connection to other computers is possible with the help of ISP (Internet Service Provider). Each Internet users depend dialup connections to connect to Internet.


This has many disadvantages like very poor speed, may time cut downs etc. To solve the problem, Internet data can be transferred through Cable networks wired to the user computer. Different type connections used are PSTN connection, ISDN connection and Internet via Cable networks. Various advantages are High availability, High bandwidth to low cost, high speed data access, always on connectivity etc.

The huge growth in the number of Internet users every year has resulted in the traffic congestion on the net, resulting in slower and expensive Internet access. As cable TV has a strong reach to homes, it is the best medium for providing the Internet to house - holds with faster access at feasible rates.

We are witnessing an unprecedented demand from residential and business customers, especially in the last few years, for access to the Internet, corporate intranets and various online information services. The Internet revolution is sweeping the country with a burgeoning number of the Internet users. As more and more people are being attracted towards the Internet, traffic congestion on the Net is continuously increasing due to limited bandwidths resulting in slower and expensive Internet access.

The number of household getting on the Internet has increased exponentially in the recent past. First time internet users are amazed at the internet's richness of content and personalization, never before offered by any other medium. But this initial awe last only till they experienced the slow speed of internet content deliver. Hence the popular reference "World Wide Wait"(not world wide web). There is a pent-up demand for the high-speed (or broad band) internet access for fast web browsing and more effective telecommuting.

India has a cable penetration of 80 million homes, offering a vast network for leveraging the internet access. Cable TV has a strong reach to the homes and therefore offering the Internet through cable could be a scope for furthering the growth of internet usage in the homes.

The cable is an alternative medium for delivering the Internet services in the US, there are already a million homes with cable modems, enabling the high-speed internet access over cable. In India, we are in the initial stages. We are experiencing innumerable local problems in Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi, along with an acute shortage of international Internet connectivity.

Accessing the Internet on the public switched telephone networks (PSTN) still has a lot of problems. Such as drops outs. Its takes along time to download or upload large files. One has to pay both for the Internet connectivity as well as for telephone usages during that period. Since it is technically possible to offer higher bandwidth by their cable, home as well as corporate users may make like it. Many people cannot afford a PC At their premises. Hardware obsolescence in the main problem to the home user.

                                                😉

Anonymous Communication..




Anonymous Communication

INFORMATION

Anonymous communication is a necessary measure to protect the privacy of users, and protect computer systems against traffic analysis. Anonymity systems seeks to build an infrastructure running on top of the existing Internet protocols that allows people to communicate with each other without necessarily revealing their personal network identifiers.

 CPM-1do-BD  

The basic idea behind any anonymous system is to provide unlinkability between communicating parties by relaying traffic through a number of intermediate nodes. If the messages are delayed and buffered at these intermediate nodes then they can provide stronger anonymity.

Such message based systems are suitable for high latency anonymous applications such as anonymous email. Such sytems are called Mix based system. Circuit based randomized routing techniques like Onion Routing and TOR are used for providing low latency applications like anonymous web browsing or remote login. All these anonymous systems are used by are used by diverse group of users to protect their identities on the Internet

Introduction of CHAUM’S MIX

It is a concept introduced by David Chaum which is based on public key cryptography that allows an electronic mail system to hide whom a participant communicates with as well as the content of the communication . The basic building block of such a high latency anonymous communication systems is a mix. At a high level ,a mix is a process that accepts encrypted messages as input and groups several messages together into a batch , and then decrypts and
forwards some or all of the messages in the batch.

The principal idea is that messages to be anonymized are relayed through a mix. The mix has a well-known RSA public key, and messages are divided into blocks and encrypted using this key. Upon receiving a message, a mix decrypts all the blocks, strips out the first block that contains the address of the recipient, and appends a block of random bits (the junk) at the end of the message. The length of the junk is chosen to make messages size invariant. The most important property that the decryption and the padding aim to achieve is bitwise unlinkability.

An observer, or an active attacker, should not be able to find the link between the bit pattern of the encoded messages arriving at the mix and the decoded messages departing from the mix. More precisely, a mix first generates a public and private key pair and makes the public component known to clients who wish to relay messages through the mix .We let C = Ex (M) denote encryption of a message M with mix x’s publickey, and also let M = Dx(C) denote decryption of a cipher text C with mix x’s corresponding privatekey. Further ,we let Ax represent the identity or address of mix x (e.g., x’sIPaddress).

Consider a sender , Alice , who wants to anonymously send a message M to a recipient , Bob ,via a single mix x .Then , Alice would compute Ex (Rx , M, AB),where Rx is a string of random bits and AB is Bob’s address . She then sends the resulting cipher text to the mix, which can use its privatekey to retrieve M and AB. Rx is simply discarded, but is included in the encryption to help prevent an adversary from identifying two identical messages encrypted under the same asymmetric key . Also alice could first encrypt Message M using publickey of Bob so that even the mix couldn’t read it. This can be concisely represented as

Ex (Rx , M, AB) → M.

The mix collects messages into a batch until it has received “enough” ,and then forwards each to the destination address extracted from the decrypted input message

MIX NETWORKS

More level of anonymity can be achieved by using a series of mixes instead of a single mix.In mix networks senders can choose an ordered sequence of mixes through which to send their messages. The sequence of mixes through which a message is routed as that message’s path. There are two general path selection strategies typically considered: free routes and mix cascades. In free route topology the clients are able to choose any ordered sequence of mixes in the network for their message’s path. In a mix cascade topology, there are one or more
predefined routes through which all client traffic is relayed.

If Alice wants to anonymously send a message M to Bob via a path P = {x, y, z} , she would iteratively create a layer of encryption, in the same manner as above, for each mix starting with the last mix in the path and working back toward the first. Alice then sends the resulting multiply encrypted ciphertext to the first mix in the path.

DOS Attack....



DOS Attack



Perpetrators of DoS attacks typically target sites or services hosted on high-profile web servers such as banks, credit card payment gateways, and even root nameservers. The term is generally used with regards to computer networks, but is not limited to this field, for example, it is also used in reference to CPU resource management.



There are two general forms of DoS attacks: those that crash services and those that flood services. One common method of attack involves saturating the target machine with external communications requests, such that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic, or responds so slowly as to be rendered effectively unavailable. In general terms, DoS attacks are implemented by either forcing the targeted computer to reset, or consuming its resources so that it can no longer provide its intended service or obstructing the communication media between the intended users and the victim so that they can no longer communicate adequately.



Symptoms and Manifestations

The United States Computer Emergency Response Team defines symptoms of denial-ofservice attacks to include:


 Unusually slow network performance (opening files or accessing web sites)



 Unavailability of a particular web site  Inability to access any web site



 Dramatic increase in the number of spam emails received—(this type of DoS attack is considered an e-mail bomb)



Denial-of-service attacks can also lead to problems in the network 'branches' around the actual computer being attacked. For example, the bandwidth of a router between the Internet and a LAN may be consumed by an attack, compromising not only the intended computer, but also the entire network. If the attack is conducted on a sufficiently large scale, entire geographical regions of Internet connectivity can be compromised without the attacker's knowledge or intent by incorrectly configured or flimsy network infrastructure equipment.




Ping of Death

This vulnerability is quite well known and was earlier commonly used to hang remote systems (or even force them to reboot) so that no users can use its services. This exploit no longer works, as almost all system administrators would have upgraded their systems making them safe from such attacks. In this attack, the target system is pinged with a data packet that exceeds the maximum bytes allowed by TCP/IP, which is 65 536. This would have almost always caused the remote system to hang, reboot or crash. This DOS attack could be carried out even through the command line, in the following manner: The following Ping command creates a giant datagram of the size 65540 for Ping.


How to prevent people from breaking your system



If no patch is available, and your main concern are pings from users outside your network, it would seem the best quick-fix solution is to block ping at the firewall. This is not a longterm solution. If you have any services listening on any ports at all, they are vulnerable. Be assured that sooner or later someone will come out with a program which sends invalid packets to a web server, an ftp port. The only solution is to patch your operating system. By blocking ping, you prevent people from pinging you at all. This could possibly break some things that rely on. A better solution than blocking all pings is to block only fragmented pings. This will allow your common-or-garden 64 byte ping through on almost all systems, while blocking any bigger than the MTU size of your link. (This varies, but about 1k is a good bet).



Ping flood



A ping flood is a simple denial-of-service attack where the attacker overwhelms the victim with ICMP Echo Request (ping) packets. It only succeeds if the attacker has more bandwidth than the victim (for instance an attacker with a DSL line and the victim on a dial-up modem). The attacker hopes that the victim will respond with ICMP Echo Reply packets, thus consuming outgoing bandwidth as well as incoming bandwidth. If the target system is slow enough, it is possible to consume enough of its CPU cycles for a user to notice a significant slowdown. There are two general forms of DoS attacks: those that crashes services and those that flood services.



Teardrop



The Teardrop attack exploits the vulnerability present in the reassembling of data packets. Whenever data is being sent over the Internet, it is broken down into smaller fragments at the source system and put together at the destination system. Say you need to send 4000 bytes of data from one system to the other, then not all of the 4000 bytes is sent at one go. This entire chunk of data is first broken down into smaller parts and divided into a number of packets, with each packet carrying a specified range of data. For Example, say 4000 bytes is divided into 3 packets, then:



The first Packet will carry data from 1 byte to 1500 bytes



The second Packet will carry data from 1501 bytes to 3000 bytes



The third packet will carry data from 3001 bytes to 4000 bytes



These packets have an OFFSET field in their TCP header part. This Offset field specifies from which byte to which byte does that particular data packet carries data or the range of data that it is carrying. This along with the sequence numbers helps the destination system to reassemble the data packets in the correct order. Now in this attack, a series of data packets are sent to the target system with overlapping Offset field values. As a result, the target system is not able to reassemble the packets and is forced to crash, hang or reboot. Say for example, consider the following scenario-: (Note: _ _ _ = 1 Data Packet) Normally a system receives data packets in the following form, with no overlapping Offset values.



_ _ _

_ _ _
_ _ _
(1 to 1500 bytes)
(1501 to 3000 bytes)
(3001 to 4500 bytes)
Now in a Teardrop attack, the data packets are sent to the target computer in the following format:
_ _ _


_ _ _

_ _ _
(1 to 1500 bytes)
(1500 to 3000 bytes)
(1001 to 3600 bytes)
When the target system receives something like the above, it simply cannot handle it and will crash or hang or reboot.


Distributed DOS Attacks

DOS attacks are not new; in fact they have been around for a long time. However there has been a recent wave of Distributed Denial of Services attacks which pose a great threat to Security and are on the verge of overtaking Viruses/Trojans to become the deadliest threat to Internet Security. Now you see, in almost all of the above TCP/IP vulnerabilities, which are being exploited by hackers, there is a huge chance of the target's system administrator or the authorities tracing the attacks and getting hold of the attacker.


Now what is commonly being done is, say a group of 5 Hackers join and decide to bring a Fortune 500 company's server down. Now each one of them breaks into a smaller less protected network and takes over it. So now they have 5 networks and supposing there are around 20 systems in each network, it gives these Hackers, around 100 systems in all to attack from. So they sitting on there home computer, connect to the hacked less protected Network, install a Denial of Service Tool on these hacked networks and using these hacked systems in the various networks launch Attacks on the actual Fortune 500 Company.



This makes the hackers less easy to detect and helps them to do what they wanted to do without getting caught. As they have full control over the smaller less protected network they can easily remove all traces before the authorities get there. Not even a single system connected to the Internet is safe from such DDOS attacks. All platforms including Unix, Windows NT are vulnerable to such attacks. Even MacOS has not been spared, as some of them are being used to conduct such DDOS attacks.



Conclusion

DDos attack tools are readily available and any internet host is targetable as either a zombie or the ultimate DDos focus. These attacks can be costly and frustrating and are difficult, if not impossible to eradicate. The best defence is to hinder attackers through vigilant system administration. Applying patches, updating anti-malicious software programs, system monitoring, and reporting incidents go further than retarding DDos attacks – these defences also protect against other attacks. The Internet is not stable—it reforms itself rapidly. This means that DDoS countermeasures quickly become obsolete.


New services are offered through the Internet, and new attacks are deployed to prevent clients from accessing these services. However, the basic issue is whether DDoS attacks represent a network problem or an individual problem—or both. If attacks are mainly a network problem, a solution could derive from alterations in Internet protocols. Specifically, routers could filter malicious traffic, attackers could not spoof IP addresses, and there would be no drawback in routing protocols. If attacks are mostly the result of individual system weaknesses, the solution could derive from an effective IDS system, from an antivirus, or from an invulnerable firewall. Attackers then could not compromise systems in order to create a "zombies" army. Obviously, it appears that both network and individual hosts constitute the problem. Consequently, countermeasures should be taken from an antivirus, or from an invulnerable firewall.

What is Antivirus Software? |Short|



Today we are going to talk about the Antivirus in short. So you will get to know about main things of Antivirus in short time, like – What is Antivirus Software? Short History Of Antivirus Software etc…


ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE


An Antivirus program, a software originally designed to detect or to protect your computer system from Viruses/ Malware. As the name says all… if Antivirus detect virus in your computer system, then it display a warning message on your computer screen, asking what action should be done, often giving the options to remove, ignore or move the file to the vault.

In modern Antivirus, software protects your computer from various threats. There are some main threats below:

  • Malicious - Browser Helper Objects (BHOs)
  • Ransomware
  • Keyloggers
  • Backdoors
  • Rootkits
  • Browser Hijackers
  • Trojan Horses
  • Worms
  • Malicious LSPs
  • Dialers
  • Fraudtools
  • Adware
  • Spyware






SHORT HISTORY


The first Antivirus Program was appeared in the late 1980s, when viruses were spreading rapidly. The first Antivirus program, in 1987, came by G Data Software for the Atari ST. Later in the same year VirusScan was introduced by John McAfee, which later became the McAfee antivirus program.


WHY WE NEED AN ANTIVIRUS PROGRAM?


If your computer is affected with many Viruses, Malware etc. then it will affect your computer system. For protecting your computer, for detecting that virus, for removing that virus etc. you need the Antivirus Software. You are using any Operating System (OS) in your computer system, you must need one Antivirus.


WHAT HAPPEN IF VIRUS INFECT TO YOUR COMPUTER WITHOUT ANTIVIRUS?


If a virus infects a computer without any antivirus then it will freeze your computer, slow down your computer, delete any file, consume many storage, disturb your running programs, your computer will may be restarting again-and-again etc. if anything is happen in your computer system, and you have not a Antivirus in your system then instantly install any antivirus and scan it to detect Virus.


SOME ANTIVIRUS LIST


  • FortiClient
  • AdAware Free Antivirus
  • Qihoo 360 Total Security
  • Comodo Antivirus
  • Avira Free Antivirus
  • MalwareBytes
  • AVG Antivirus
  • Avast Free Antivirus
  • Norton

 .........

That’s all about the Antivirus Software. In our Blog you also get some other articles related to Security. These Articles are must read Articles if you want to Learn and Secure Your System…




Have Fun… Be Safe…

Thanks for Reading…


Robot Technology




OBJECTIVE


Realize the fundamentals of Robot Technology.  Know the general characteristic of Robot. Understand the basic components of Robots. Recognize Robot anatomy be informed of Robot generation.

Be aware of Robot selection.


DEFINITION


Robot technology is an applied science that is referred to as a combination of machine tools and computer applications. Include such diverse fields as machine design, control theory, Microelectronics, Computer Programming, Artificial intelligence, Human Factors and Production Theory.


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS


A specialized machine tools with a degree of flexibility that distinguishes them from fixed-purpose automation.

Is essential a mechanical arm that is bolted to the Floor, A machine, the ceiling or in some cases the wall fitted with its Mechanical Hand, and taught to do repetitive task in a controlled, ordered environment ability to move Mechanical Arm to perform work.
 Robot interface with their work environment once a Mechanical hand has been attached to the Robots’ Tool mounting plate. 


DEFINITIONS


  • WORK ENVELOPE: The set of points representing the maximum extend or reach of the Robot hand or working tool in all direction.
  • PAYLOAD: The ability to carry, continuously and satisfaction, a given maximum weight at a given speed.
  • VELOCITY: The maximum speed at which the tip of a Robot is capable of moving at full extension, expressed in inches or Millimeters per Second.
  • CYCLE: Time it takes for Robot to complete one cycle of picking up a given object at a given height, moving it to a given distance, lowering it, releasing it and returning to the starting point
  • ACCURACY: A Robot’s ability to position the End Effector at a specified point in space upon receiving a control command without previously having attained that position.
  • REPEATIBILITY: The ability of a Robot to Return consistently to a previously defined and achieved location.
  •  RESOLUTION: The smallest incremental change in position that it make or its control system can measure.
  • SIZE: The physical size of a Robot, which influences its capacity and its capabilities.


BASIC COMPONENTS


The basic components of an industrial Robot are the Manipulator and the End Effector(which is the part of an Manipulator) and the Power Supply and the Controller.  

The Manipulator, which is the Robot’s Arm, consist of segments jointed together with axes capable of motion in various directions allow the Robot to perform work.

The Effector which is a gripper tool, a special device, or fixed attached to the Robot’s Arm, actually performs the work.

Power Supply provides and regulates the energy that is converted to motion by the Robot Actuator, and it may be either – electric, Pneumatic or hydraulic.

The controller initiates, terminates, and coordinates the motion of sequences of a Robot. Also it accepts the Robot and provides the outputs to interface with the outside world. 



MANIPULATOR


 IS A MECHANICAL UNIT THAT PROVIDES MOTION SIMILAR TO THAT OF A HUMAN ARM?

Its primary function is to provide the specific motions that will enable the tooling at the end of the arm to do the required work.

A Robot movement can be divided into two general categories: Arm and Body (shoulder and Elbow) Motions and the wrist Motions.

The individual joint motions associated with these categories are referred to as degree of Freedom.

Also Read: What is Big Data? 

Each axis is equal to one degree of freedom. Typically, an industrial Robots are equipped with 46 degrees of Freedom.

The wrist can reach a point in space with specific orientation by any of three Motions: A Pitch or Up-and-Down Motion; A Yaw, or Side-to-Side Motion; And A roll, Or Rotating Motion and The joint labeled pitch, Yaw and Roll are called Orientation Axes.

The points that manipulator bends, slides, or rotates are called joints or position axes.

Manipulation is carried out using mechanical devices, such as Linkages, Gears, Actautors, and Feedback devices.

Position axes are called as world coordinates, is identifies as being fixed location within the manipulators that serves as absolute frame or reference. 

  • THE X-AXIS TRAVEL MOVES THE MANIPULATOR IN AN IN-AND-OUT MOTION.
  • THE Y-AXIS MOTION CAUSES THE MANIPULATOR TO MOVE SIDE-TO-SIDE.
  • THE Z AXIS MOTION CAUSES THE MANIPULATOR TO MOVE IN AND UPAND-DOWN MOTION.

The mechanical design of a Robot manipulator design of a Robot manipulator relates directly to its work envelope and motion characteristics. 


END EFFECTOR


IS THE DEVICE THAT IS MECHANICALLY OPENED AND CLOSED?

Act as the tool-mounting plate.

Depending on the type of operation, conventional End Effector are equipped with various devices and tool attachments, as follows:

  • Grippers
  • Hooks
  • Scoops
  • Electromagnets
  • Vacuum cups
  • Adhesive Fingers 

End Effector is generally custom-made to meet special handling requirements.

Mechanical Grippers are most commonly used and are equipped with two or more fingers. The selection of an appropriate End Effector for a specific application depends upon factors such as Payload, Environment, Reliability and cost.


POWER SUPPLY


The function of the Power Supply is to provide and regulate energy that is required for a Robot to be operated.

THERE ARE THREE BASIC TYPES O POWER SUPPLIES:

  • ELECTRIC
  • HYDRAULIC
  • PNEUMATIC

Electricity is the most common source of Power and is used extensively with industrial Robots.

The second most common source is PNEUMATIC, and the least common is HYDRAULIC POWER.

Also Read: What is DNS?

The power supply has a Direct Relation to the Payload Rating. 


CONTROLLER


The controller is a communication an information processing device that initiates, terminates and coordinates the motions and sequences of a Robot.

It accepts necessary input to the Robot and provides the output drive signals to a controlling motor or actuator to correspond with the Robot Movements and outside world.

The heart of the controller is the computer and it Solid-State Memory. 

THE INPUT AND OUTPUT SECTION OF A CONTROL SYSTEM MUST PROVIDE A COMMUNICATION NTERFACE BETWEEN THE ROBOT CONTROLLER COMPUTER AND FOLLOWING PARTS:

  • FEEDBACK SENSORS
  • PRODUCTION SENSORS
  • PRODUCTION MACHINE TOOLS
  • TEACHING DEVICE
  • PROGRAM STORAGE DEVICES
  • HARD COPY DEVICES

The computer controls the motion of the Robot Arm by means of Drive Signals that pass through the drive interface to the Actuators on the Arm.


Robots are often classified under the three major categories, according to the type of control system used: 

  • NONSERVO – OPEN LOOP SYSTEM
  • SERVO – CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM
  • SERVO-CONTROLLED – CLOSED LOOP SYSTEMS WITH CONTINUOUSLY CONTROLLED PATH


ROBOT ANATOMY


Robot Anatomy is concerned with the Physical Construction and Characteristics of the Body, Arm, and Wrist, which are components of Robot Manipulator.

Movements between the various components of the Body, Arm and Wrist are provided by a series of joints.

Attached to the Robot wrist is the End Effector (or End-of-Arm Tolling) that performs the works.

The End Effector is not considered a part of the Robot’s Anatomy.


ROBOT CONFIGURATIONS:

  1. Industrial Robots are available in a wide range of shapes, sizes, speed, load capacities, and other capabilities.
  2. The vast majority of Tody’s commercially available Robots possess five distinct configurations:

A. RECTANGULAR (OR CARTESIAN) 
B. CYLINDIRICAL (OR POST-TYPE) 
C. SPHERICAL (OR POLAR)
D. JOINTED ARM (ARTICULATED OR REVOLUTE) 
E. SCARA (SELECTIVE COMPLAINCE ASSEMBLY ROBOT ARM)


ROBOT GENERATIONS


THE FIVE GENERATIONS OF ROBOT CONTROLLERS AFTER THE HIGHTECH INCEPTION IN 1960 ARE AS FOLLOWS:

  • FIRST GENERATION:

REPEATING ROBOTS- These were generally Pick and Place Robots, with mechanical sequences defining stop points.

  • SECOND GENERATION:

Hardwired controllers provided the first programmable units.

  • THIRD GENERATION:

Programmable logic controllers (PLC), Introduced in the industries over thirteen years ago, provides a Microprocessor-Based Robotic controller that is easy to program.

  • FOURTH GENERATION:

When control beyond the PCL is required, a microcomputer may control the entire system, including other programmable machinery I a Robot Workcell.

  • FIFTH GENERATION:

Robot controller will involve complete Artificial intelligence (AI), Miniature Sensors, and Decision making capability.

An artificial Biological Robot might provide the impetus for sixth and higher generation Robots. 


SUMMARY


ROBOT TECHNOLOGY is an applied science that is referred to as combination of machine tool fundamentals and computer applications.

The basic components of an Industrial Robot are:

  • MANIPULATOR
  • END EFFECTOR
  • POWER SUPPLY
  • CONTROL SYSTEM

Also Read: Cloud Computing 

Robot Anatomy is concerned with the physical construction and operation of the manipulator and has five basic configurations:

  • RECTANGULAR
  • CYLINDRICAL
  • SPHERICAL
  • JOINTED-ARM
  • SCARA



SO FAR, There have been five Generation of Robot Controllers and we are merging now to Sixth, seventh and Even higher generations.

Robots with increasing Intelligence, Sensory Capability, Dexterity, and Sophisticated control systems have become Dominant factor in modern Manufacturing.

THE THREE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF ROBOTS IN MANUFACTURING ARE: DYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE, ECONOMICS AND SAFETY.



At the last we only say please comment below about this post because we already give you the exact date, when we are releasing this post. You need more this Type of Posts/Articles Comment below J

Thank you!



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Thoughts

‘To Become A Winner Is Easy, But It Is Hard To Make A Winner’

Ayush Sonkar

FOUNDER OF NEXT IS EASY

Keep Sharing… Because “Sharing Is The Only Way To Spread Our Happiness”

Ayush Srivastav

FOUNDER OF NEXT IS EASY

“Success means having the courage, the determination, and the will to become the person you believe you were meant to be.”

Ayush

NEXT IS EASY

Next Is Easy
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Kanpur (UP), INDIA

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